• Are Pennington plant seeds non-GMO?
    Yes, all of our seeds are non-GMO.
  • When should I fertilize a new lawn?
    Fertilize new lawns after planting grass seed using a starter fertilizer. High-quality lawn fertilizer gives turf essential nutrients that help it grow thick. As your lawn matures, you will want to continue with a proper fertilizing schedule, but that can depend upon what type of grass you have. Learn more about when to fertilize your lawn here
  • What does "GMO" mean?
    GMO stands for Genetically Modified Organism. In agriculture, this label refers to crops whose DNA has been modified using genetic engineering methods in a laboratory. This modification is done most often to alter the traits of a plant or to introduce new traits that it would not have naturally.
  • Are hybrid seeds GMO?
    No. Hybrids are the result of cross-pollination between two different plant varieties to produce a hybrid offspring. The result is a hybrid that contains the traits of each of the parents. Cross-pollination is a natural process that occurs within members of the same plant species. As an Animal Kingdom example, when a Labrador breed mates with a Poodle the offspring is a cross-breed Labradoodle.
  • Can I apply weed and feed at the same time as planting grass seed?
    Do not apply weed and feed or herbicide products when planting a new lawn, even if they are selective. Weed killing products can prevent grass seeds from germinating so wait until your lawn is established. Lawns usually take about one year to be fully established and benefit from weed treatments. To learn how to fight difficult weeds learn more here
  • What are organic seeds?
    100% certified Organic seeds are harvested from plants grown without synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides. They harbor no residues from these chemicals. Organically grown seed produces hearty, robust plants already adapted to Organic growing conditions.
  • How often should I fertilize my lawn?
    How often to fertilize your lawn will depend on what type of grass you have. Cool-season grasses should be fertilized a total of three times. Twice in the fall in September and November, then again in the spring in May or April after the first flush of growth.

    Warm-season grasses should be fed three times during active growth periods, but not during the hot midsummer months. Apply the fertilizer in three phases: first when the grass starts to green in early spring, next in late spring, and once again in late summer.
  • What is an open-pollinated variety?
    An open-pollinated variety relies on natural pollination from wind and insects, and holds on to the parent’s characteristics generation after generation. This is important as it allows saved seed to produce identically if used again. Seed from an open-pollinated plant can be saved to be used again, while seed from a hybrid variety should not be saved.
  • What is an heirloom variety?
    Heirloom varieties are open-pollinated seeds that have been saved from generation to generation. Usually varieties referred to as heirloom have been around for more than 50 years and offer a wonderful history in the names and flavors that continually provide dependable quality season after season. The seed from heirloom plants can be saved at the end of the season to be used again the next year.
  • What is the difference between indeterminant and determinate tomatoes?
    Determinate tomato varieties are most often "bush type" tomatoes. Determinate tomatoes will set all their fruit in a certain period of time and do not need to be pruned. They grow well in a cage and do not require staking. Determinate tomatoes are smaller and produce fruit early in season.
  • When should I fertilize my lawn?
    When to fertilize your lawn will depend on what type of grass you have, warm- or cool-season. For cool-season lawns, the best time to fertilize is in the fall so that they are well fed prior to winter. Warm-season grasses should be fertilized in early spring.
  • What is succession planting?
    Succession gardening is a method of planting a second or third crop where another crop has finished growing. With this method, you can always be using your garden space for more fresh produce. Once early maturing plants have finished, you can plant a second crop in their place (to get ahead, try starting plants in Jiffy peat pots).
  • What is a typical fertilizing/lawn care schedule?
    There are many things a homeowner should do throughout the year to maintain a healthy lawn. That can include fertilizing, mowing, applying herbicides and treating for disease and pests.

    The proper schedule for caring for your lawn so that larger issues don't arise will depend on whether you have a cool-season or warm-season lawn. Check out our cool-season lawn care calendar or warm-season lawn care calendar to learn how to care for your lawn.
  • What is hardening off plants and how do I do it?
    Hardening off is the process of gradually transplanting a plant from a warm, comfortable indoor environment to the cool, windy outdoors. This process generally takes about 7-10 days. Place plants in the sun for an hour the first day, gradually increasing the exposure for about a week until plants can accept a full day of direct sunlight. After a couple of full days outside, the plants should be left out overnight, unless there is a danger of frost. Make sure the transplants are well watered during the process.
  • Is Ironite toxic to pets?
    When Ironite is applied according to the label, we would not expect the product to harm pets. However, we recommend keeping all people and pets off of the treated area until it has dried. Once it is dry pets can reenter.
  • How long do annual plants last?

    Within the course of a single year, annual plants sprout, grow, flower, seed and fruit, all before dying at the end of the season.

  • When should I apply Ironite?
    Apply Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1 when your lawn starts to lose its green color, which may be due to iron deficiency or the stress of hot summer months. Ironite is non-burning and greens up lawns without the growth surge that requires excessive mowing. To learn more about the benefits of applying Ironite, visit our article on how to maintain a green lawn
  • How long do perennial plants last?

    Unlike annuals, which live for one season, perennial plants live for more than 2 years.

  • Is Pennington Fertilizer toxic to pets?
    When applied according to the label, we would not expect the fertilizer to harm pets. Depending on the formula, do not let pets enter the are until dust has settled or product is watered in and treated area is dry. We also recommend keeping all pets off of the treated area for at least 24 hours.
  • How should I water my plants?

    Water over the top of the soil at the root base, not over top of the foliage.

  • Is Pennington Fertilizer safe for horse pastures?
    Unless the product specifically states it can be used on pastures it should not be applied.
  • When can I allow pets back into my yard after applying lawn fertilizer or weed and feed?
    Pets can return to an area treated with most fertilizers once the treated location is dry or dust has settled. Weed and feed fertilizers are an exception; pets should be kept out of the treated area for 48 hours. If you think your pet has been exposed and is having an adverse reaction please call our customer care number immediately at 1-800-265-0761.
  • How can I stop bugs from eating my plants?

    Spot check daily for insects on the underside of your foliage by taking a sheet of white paper and holding it close. The contrast between the bright white paper and the color of your foliage will allow you to pick up on any near microscopic insects such as aphids.

  • Can lawn fertilizer be used on plants, trees or shrubs?
    Plants need nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) which are 3 of the 17 nutrients essential to all plant life. The necessary NPK ratio can vary depending on the type of plant you are fertilizing, which you will usually see listed prominently on the packaging. While some all purpose fertilizers can be used on many different plant types, it is not advisable to use fertilizer on any plants that are not listed on the label. To learn more about what these ratios mean, visit our article "Numbers to Grow By: Understanding Fertilizer Labels."
  • How can I keep my plants from dying?

    Place the plant in nutrient-rich Pennington Rejuvenate Potting Soil or Garden Mix, check the soil daily, feed with the appropriate Pennington Rejuvenate Plant Food, and prune the plant of any dead pieces so that new growth can form.

  • How do I apply Pennington plant fertilizer to a vegetable garden?
    Because fertilizers have different NPK ratios you will want to make sure to apply the appropriate fertilizer for the type of plants you are growing. Since application rates can vary, be sure to follow the directions for the fertilizer you have. To see a list of our plant fertilizers, click here.
  • How do I properly feed my plant?
    Sprinkle the appropriate amount of plant food on top of soil of planting area. Check the label for recommended amounts.
    • Do not let plant roots directly touch the food
    • Keep the plant food off of leaves and wash granules off with water
    • After applying plant food, mix it lightly into the soil - always water plants and soil well
  • What is the best temperature to apply lawn fertilizer?
    The best time to apply lawn fertilizer is when weather is moderate. We don't recommend applying product when a frost is expected or if plants are stressed due to heat or drought. Otherwise, products can be applied during the early morning or early evening hours before or after the heat of the day.
  • How does Pennington Rejuvenate Plant Food work?
    Pennington Rejuvenate Plant Foods contain essential plant nutrients. When this plant food is applied and watered into the soil around the plant, nutrients become available to the plant. The mycorrhizal fungi and microbes increase plant absorption of water and minerals. Humic acids may aid in the uptake of nutrients.
  • Should fertilizer be applied to a wet or dry lawn?
    Fertilizer should be applied to dry lawns with the exception of weed and feed products. Water your lawn prior to applying weed and feed for best results. However, always be sure to follow the directions on the label for use as products may vary. See all of our lawn fertilizers here.
  • Do plants get their food from the soil?
    Plants can obtain essential plant nutrients from the soil. However, soils vary widely across the United States and may be deficient in elements plants need to grow and produce flowers and fruit. Pennington Rejuvenate plant foods are formulated to provide essential plant nutrients and soil amending additives including beneficial microorganisms and humic acids.
  • How can I make my lawn greener?
    To get a deep green lawn apply Ironite Mineral Supplement 1-0-1. With mild iron deficiencies, lawns will yellow, but with severe iron chlorosis, turfgrass can die. Ironite contains iron and beneficial microbes, which will turn yellow lawns green without excessive growth or burning. Ironite is also ideal for yellow lawns during summer months. To learn more about how to get, and keep, a healthy lawn visit our article "Greening Up Your Lawn."
  • Is Pennington Rejuvenate Soil organic?
    Our potting mix and garden soil contains natural and organic ingredients, like Canadian Sphagnum peat moss and composted bark with earthworm castings, and biostimulants.
  • When should I apply lime to my lawn?
    The best time to apply lime is in fall and spring. Fall has an added advantage, as rain, snow and cycles of freezing and thawing help lime break down and begin to work. First, test your soil to learn your soil's starting pH. Based on your soil's pH, apply the appropriate amount of lime to get your soil to the ideal range between 6.8 and 7.2.
  • Why is good soil essential for plant growth?
    The quality of soil determines whether your plant stays healthy and beautiful or not, which is why it is important to choose soil that includes nutrients, like rich organic matter and microorganisms. These nutrients work together to create a living, sustainable ecosystem for the plant.
  • What does lime do for lawns?
    Lime helps balance soil pH, which can change soil conditions so it does not promote moss and weeds.
  • Can soil help my plants resist pests and diseases?
    Yes. Good quality soil helps plants become more resilient to stress and less susceptible to pests and disease.
  • How much lime should I apply to my lawn?
    To find out how much lime to apply to your lawn, you will need to start with a soil test. A soil test will give you your soil's pH to ensure that you are applying the correct amount of Pennington Fast Acting lime to correct the problem. The ideal pH for lawns is between 6.8 and 7.2. For more about application rates please visit our Fast Acting Lime product page.
  • Which soil is the best for vegetables, herbs, and fruits?
    Pennington Rejuvenate Garden Soil Mix will ensure vegetables, herbs and fruits flourish because the added nutrients improve the native soil health and nutrient uptake.
  • What is the difference between Pennington Fast Acting Lime with AST and regular pelletized lime?
    Pennington Fast Acting Lime includes Advanced Soil Technology (AST), which contains polymers that are impregnated into and coated onto the specially engineered granules. AST is continuously released into the soil as moisture is applied to the granules. Additionally, one 30 LB bag of Pennington Fast Acting Lime is equivalent to five 30 LB bags of regular pelletized lime.
  • Which soil is the best for flowers?
    Pennington Rejuvenate Potting Soil Mix is the best option for flowers in hanging baskets, raised beds, window boxes, containers, and in-ground planting areas. Pennington Rejuvenate Garden Soil Mix is perfect for flower beds. Both types of soil are good for flowers because they each contain Canadian Sphagnum peat moss. Peat moss helps flowers maintain a healthy acidic pH, which enables them to absorb the nutrients from the soil.
  • Are there any effective organic lawn weed killers?
    Popular forms of organic lawncare such as pulling , burning, boiling water, salting or vinegar will damage your grass. The best way to fight weeds, if you are adverse to using fertilizer, is to make sure you have healthy soil by taking a soil sample and then adding amendments such as lime or gypsum. In addition to having healthy soil, make sure to overseed your lawn every fall to choke out weeds. Learn more about soil amendments here.
  • Are wildflowers weeds?
    Any plant growing where it is unwanted may be considered a "weed." Once mature, wildflowers may drop seeds which can cause them to grow beyond areas they were initially planted. To prevent wildflowers from spreading to unwanted areas, consider adding a hardscape border to your wildflower garden.
  • How do I kill lawn weeds?
    To kill lawn weeds we would recommend using a weed and feed product. See our weed and feed products.
  • How do I plant wildflower seeds?
    Pennington Wildflower mixes are formulated with mulch for easy application. Simply prepare the soil by loosening the top 2-3 inches of soil & removing excess debris, apply the seed by hand or with a handheld spreader & rake lightly, working the mix into the soil and water the seeded areas. It's important to keep the area moist until seeds have germinated. A seed starter fertilizer may also be applied to increase seeding success.
  • Do you sell organic fertilizer?
    Our Alaska Fish Fertilizer 5-1-1 is an OMRI-listed (Organic Materials Review Institute) fertilizer so it can be used for organic food and crop production.
  • When should I plant wildflower seeds?
    Early spring or late fall are the best times to plant wildflowers. For spring planting, plant wildflower seeds after the last frost, when soil temperatures are regularly above 55 degrees. Planting early before excessive heat strikes will help your wildflowers establish strong roots before more stressful conditions arrive. Keep the soil moist until seeds are established, supplementing spring rainfall when necessary. For fall planting, timing is very important. In warmer climates, planting 4-6 weeks before the first frost allows your wildflowers to establish strong root systems before freezing temperatures hit. In northern climates with consistent cold in winter, it is best to wait until soil temperatures are below 55 degrees to maintain the seed dormancy and prevent the seeds from germinating until warmer weather returns.
  • When should I apply Fast Acting Gypsum?
    Apply gypsum in areas with compacted soil, such as areas composed with a lot of clay. Gypsum helps to loosen compacted soil, increases water penetration, promotes root growth and adds calcium without raising pH. It's also great for vegetable gardens with plants that have higher calcium needs, such as tomatoes.
  • Are wildflowers perennials?
    Pennington Wildflower mixes contain both annuals and perennials.
  • Will Pennington products harm fish ponds?
    We recommend avoiding applying fertilizer in such a way that the run-off could end up in fish ponds. Fish are very sensitive to chemicals, so use caution because fish could be harmed.
  • How long does it take for wildflowers to grow?
    Each variety will vary slightly. Since Pennington Wildflower mixes contain multiple seed types, you can expect blooms throughout the growing season. In general, wildflowers will germinate 2-3 weeks after soil temperatures remain above 55 degrees and will bloom 6-8 weeks after germination. Adequate watering will help your wildflowers retain their blooms as temperatures rise.
  • Are Pennington products harmful to birds or wildlife?
    When Pennington products are applied according to the label, we would not expect them to harm wildlife.
  • What is the difference between fertilizers and soil amendments?
    Amendments are added to soil to change and improve it. Unlike fertilizers, which add nutrients to soil, amendments modify the condition of the soil itself which provides a better environment for plant growth.

    Fertilizers impact plant growth directly, while soil amendments affect growth indirectly and sometimes deliver nutrients as a bonus. Soil amendments aren't fertilizer substitutes. Instead, they help fertilizers do the job they're intended to do by getting tilth and other factors in order.
  • What spreader settings should I use to plant grass seed or apply fertilizer?
    All seeds and fertilizers can require different spreader settings. We recommend that you refer to the manual of the spreader you wish to use for the correct spreader.
  • What is your return policy?
    Pennington Fertilizer products have a customer satisfaction guarantee in which, if a customer is not satisfied, we will refund the purchase price of the product as long as it is within 90 days of purchase and we receive the receipt.